Species Groups of the Genus Paramiana
contrasta GROUP

The contrasta species group contains the single species Paramiana contrasta. Paramiana contrasta exhibits a number of unique features and a case could be made to apply the available generic name Euamiana to this single species. The vesica of contrasta is globular near the its base tapering toward the tail. The spine-like cornuti are arranged in a single, slightly curved, diffuse band running along the length of the vesica. No diverticulum is present. The vesica of the other species of Paramiana have a large, lateral diverticulum with a row of spines. The female bursae of contrasta is elongate with the appendix bursae region and the ductus seminalis reflected backward in a caudal direction, one of the defining character states of Ruacodes. The outer ring of the frontal process is more strongly pronounced in contrasta than in endopolia and the other species of Paramiana, but both species (contrasta and eupolia) have a distinct central process. The stronger outer ring is not visible unless the scales are removed from the front of the head. The central prominence is larger in contrasta than in other species in the genus. Although a central process is present in endopolia it is normally not visible unless the front of the head is denuded of scales.

endopolia Group

The endopolia species group contains the single species Paramiana endopolia. This species has a remarkable superficial superficial similarity to Euamiana contrasta even though the male and female genitalia indicate that the two species are not closely related. The species is superficially characterized by the brown forewing coloration and the extensive white scaling in the lower half of the median area and the lower portions of the antemedial and postmedial line. The female genitalia are typical of the genus. The male vesica has a large lateral diverticulum with a strong group of spines. The spine group opposite the diverticulum is concentrated into a patch and is not a linear row as found in the smaragdina species group. The front process has a distinct central process, although the process is small and not visible without denuding the front of the head. The outlines of the outer ring are present, although rounded and not strong. The lower margin of the ring is absent and the outer ring is confluent with the clypeal margin.

adusta Group

Two species belong to the Paramiana adusta species, group, adusta, and Paramiana cuppes (Dyar) (Luperina cuppes Dyar, 1914 (NEW COMBINATION), an entirely Mexican species. These two species are united primarily by the structure of the vesica of the male genitalia. Male basal hair pencils and Stobbe's glands are present. The abdominal sclerites are slightly melanized and the seventh tergum is slightly enlarged, although not greatly so. The lateral apodemes of the eighth sternum are degenerate and barely visible in the single dissection I have examined. Most of the male genitalia except for the aedoeagus is unremarkable and in no significant way different from the species of Paramiana. The aedoeagus is unique for the U.S. species of the tribe. The basal part of the vesica is elongate and covered with minute spine-like cornuti giving this portion of the vesica a fuzzy appearance. This elongate, fuzzy section is followed by a small ovate section bearing a number of long spine-like cornuti. This ovate section is followed by a long, thin neck.

perissa Group

Paramiana perissa Nye is the only known species of this group. The vesica has the ventral group of the smaragdina group but on a larger, more ovate diverticulum located closer to the base of the vesica and with many elongate spines. Abdominal sclerites and male genitalia with deposits of melanin. The ventral surface of the eighth abdominal sclerite is less heavily spined in this group than in the smaragdina group. There is a caudal pointing projection of the corpus bursae and the appendix bursae is more elongate. The ductus bursae has is more widely flared at its junction with the bursa than in the smaragdina group. The sclerotized bulla of the corpus bursae found in the smaragdina group is missing and the signum is much more diffuse. There is not distinct frontal process. However the frontal region is clearly differentiated from the rest of the head if the scales are removed, although there is no distinct raised ring or central projection.

smaragdina GROUP

The smaragdina species group contains the following species; Paramiana callaisata Blanchard, Paramiana new species 1, P. smaragdina (Neumoegen), P. new species 2, P. marina (Smith), P. new species 3, and P. new species 4. These seven species form the most consistently "noctuid" looking group within the Nocloini. The species are found in the American southwest, mostly from southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, and western Texas. The species are closely related and some pairs of species can be difficult to separate unless fresh material is available. The two species marina and new species 4 are always identifiable because of their small size. Paramiana new species 3 can be recognized by the light brown outer third of the forewing and Paramiana callaisata by the conspicuous white reniform mark. Paramiana smaragdina and P. new species 2 are distinguished by the bright green forewing scaling and P. new species 1 by its absence of any eye-catching feature. More details about species recognition is given under the relevant species headings. The general brown, "noctuid" appearance is only one identifying feature of the group. The frontal process is nearly completely absent. The central protuberance is absent and the frontal ring is missing although the front bulges and the dorsal margin of the frontal ring is present as an ovate or slightly triangular angle from the vertex and upper front of the head. Although this bulge is strong and present, it is not clearly visible unless the scales are brushed away from the front of the head. The male vesica is about five times longer than wide and the cornuti consist of two groups. An elongate and diffuse group of long spine-like cornuti runs along one margin of the vesica. The second group of spine-like cornuti are shorter, stronger, and borne on a distinct diverticulum opposite the longer, more diffuse group. This second group of cornuti consists of two to six spines arising from a sclerotized ridge running along one side of the diverticulum. The male valve contains a distinct clasper. The clasper is arcuate, but the thickness of the clasper varies between species. The female ovipositor lobes are unmodified and the ovipositor necks and apophyses are not elongate. The ostium is membranous and the ductus bursae is long with internal sclerotizations though its cephalad four-fifths. An appendix bursae is present and arises as an elongate or triangular projection from the lower right side (in the ventral orientation of the figures) of the corpus bursae. A sclerotized band is present at the cephalad end of the corpus bursae as well as a sclerotized bulla-shaped structure near the junction of the ductus bursae and corpus bursae. Basal hair pencils and Stobbe's glands are present on the first abdominal sternum of the male abdomen.