Species Groups of the Genus Paramiana
The contrasta species group contains the single species Paramiana contrasta. Paramiana contrasta exhibits a number of unique features and a case could be made to apply the available generic name Euamiana to this single species. The vesica of contrasta is globular near the its base tapering toward the tail. The spine-like cornuti are arranged in a single, slightly curved, diffuse band running along the length of the vesica. No diverticulum is present. The vesica of the other species of Paramiana have a large, lateral diverticulum with a row of spines. The female bursae of contrasta is elongate with the appendix bursae region and the ductus seminalis reflected backward in a caudal direction, one of the defining character states of Ruacodes. The outer ring of the frontal process is more strongly pronounced in contrasta than in endopolia and the other species of Paramiana, but both species (contrasta and eupolia) have a distinct central process. The stronger outer ring is not visible unless the scales are removed from the front of the head. The central prominence is larger in contrasta than in other species in the genus. Although a central process is present in endopolia it is normally not visible unless the front of the head is denuded of scales.
The endopolia species group contains the single species Paramiana
endopolia. This species has a remarkable superficial superficial
similarity to Euamiana contrasta even though the male
and female genitalia indicate that the two species are not closely related.
The species is superficially characterized by the brown forewing coloration
and the extensive white scaling in the lower half of the median area and
the lower portions of the antemedial and postmedial line. The female genitalia
are typical of the genus. The male vesica has a large lateral diverticulum
with a strong group of spines. The spine group opposite the diverticulum
is concentrated into a patch and is not a linear row as found in the smaragdina
species group. The front process has a distinct central process, although
the process is small and not visible without denuding the front of the
head. The outlines of the outer ring are present, although rounded and
not strong. The lower margin of the ring is absent and the outer ring
is confluent with the clypeal margin.
Two species belong to the Paramiana adusta species,
group, adusta, and Paramiana cuppes (Dyar) (Luperina
cuppes Dyar, 1914 (NEW COMBINATION), an entirely Mexican species.
These two species are united primarily by the structure of the vesica
of the male genitalia. Male basal hair pencils and Stobbe's glands are
present. The abdominal sclerites are slightly melanized and the seventh
tergum is slightly enlarged, although not greatly so. The lateral apodemes
of the eighth sternum are degenerate and barely visible in the single
dissection I have examined. Most of the male genitalia except for the
aedoeagus is unremarkable and in no significant way different from the
species of Paramiana. The aedoeagus is unique for the U.S. species
of the tribe. The basal part of the vesica is elongate and covered with
minute spine-like cornuti giving this portion of the vesica a fuzzy appearance.
This elongate, fuzzy section is followed by a small ovate section bearing
a number of long spine-like cornuti. This ovate section is followed by
a long, thin neck.
Paramiana perissa Nye is the only known species of this group. The vesica has the ventral group of the smaragdina group but on a larger, more ovate diverticulum located closer to the base of the vesica and with many elongate spines. Abdominal sclerites and male genitalia with deposits of melanin. The ventral surface of the eighth abdominal sclerite is less heavily spined in this group than in the smaragdina group. There is a caudal pointing projection of the corpus bursae and the appendix bursae is more elongate. The ductus bursae has is more widely flared at its junction with the bursa than in the smaragdina group. The sclerotized bulla of the corpus bursae found in the smaragdina group is missing and the signum is much more diffuse. There is not distinct frontal process. However the frontal region is clearly differentiated from the rest of the head if the scales are removed, although there is no distinct raised ring or central projection.
The smaragdina species group contains the following species;
Paramiana callaisata Blanchard, Paramiana new species
1, P. smaragdina (Neumoegen), P. new species 2, P.
marina (Smith), P. new species 3, and P. new species
4. These seven species form the most consistently "noctuid"
looking group within the Nocloini. The species are found in the American
southwest, mostly from southern Arizona, southern New Mexico, and western
Texas. The species are closely related and some pairs of species can be
difficult to separate unless fresh material is available. The two species
marina and new species 4 are always identifiable because of their
small size. Paramiana new species 3 can be recognized by the
light brown outer third of the forewing and Paramiana callaisata
by the conspicuous white reniform mark. Paramiana smaragdina
and P. new species 2 are distinguished by the bright green forewing
scaling and P. new species 1 by its absence of any eye-catching
feature. More details about species recognition is given under the relevant
species headings. The general brown, "noctuid" appearance is
only one identifying feature of the group. The frontal process is nearly
completely absent. The central protuberance is absent and the frontal
ring is missing although the front bulges and the dorsal margin of the
frontal ring is present as an ovate or slightly triangular angle from
the vertex and upper front of the head. Although this bulge is strong
and present, it is not clearly visible unless the scales are brushed away
from the front of the head. The male vesica is about five times longer
than wide and the cornuti consist of two groups. An elongate and diffuse
group of long spine-like cornuti runs along one margin of the vesica.
The second group of spine-like cornuti are shorter, stronger, and borne
on a distinct diverticulum opposite the longer, more diffuse group. This
second group of cornuti consists of two to six spines arising from a sclerotized
ridge running along one side of the diverticulum. The male valve contains
a distinct clasper. The clasper is arcuate, but the thickness of the clasper
varies between species. The female ovipositor lobes are unmodified and
the ovipositor necks and apophyses are not elongate. The ostium is membranous
and the ductus bursae is long with internal sclerotizations though its
cephalad four-fifths. An appendix bursae is present and arises as an elongate
or triangular projection from the lower right side (in the ventral orientation
of the figures) of the corpus bursae. A sclerotized band is present at
the cephalad end of the corpus bursae as well as a sclerotized bulla-shaped
structure near the junction of the ductus bursae and corpus bursae. Basal
hair pencils and Stobbe's glands are present on the first abdominal sternum
of the male abdomen.