Noctuidae - Psaphidinae - Nocloini



Paramiana new species 4

Diagnosis: Paramiana new species 4 is one of two small species in the smaragdina species group; the other is marina. The length of the forewing from base to apex ranges between 10 and 12 mm in these two species, but from 12-14 mm in the other members of the species group. This species has been confused with marina, but overall the maculation is more distinct. The description that follows is based on the premise that the specimen is fresh. Rubbed or faded specimens can be very difficult to separate from marina. The forewing basal area is dark brown but is heavily overlain with green scales. The basal line is a short, black bar on the costa and this bar is accented with dull yellow on its outer side. The antemedial line is a light, dull yellow band, strongest near the costa and inner margin, sometimes considerably weaker in the middle of the wing. The antemedial line has three scallops, the strongest in the middle of the wing, and the other two near the costa and the inner margin respectively. The scallop near the costa is often accented with black on the outer side. The claviform spot is present and is a triangular black patch. This black patch is sometimes connected by a diffuse black bar to the inner side of the postmedial line. The median area is brown and is not flecked with green scales as are the basal and subterminal regions. The medial line is darker brown, but diffuse. It runs very close to the postmedial line and can sometimes be confused with dark brown shading along the inner side of the postmedial line. The orbicular mark is a small, round circle, filled with light tan or dull light green and it has a small, dark gray central dot. The reniform mark is kidney shaped and is defined by a lighter outer line. The interior of the reniform mark is filled with gray-green. The postmedial line consists of a series of light tan bars interrupted on the veins. The subterminal region is flecked with dull gray-green scales. The subterminal line, when present, is an irregular darker brown line accented with darker brown on its inner side. The outer margin consists of a series of dark bars interrupted by light tan dots on the veins. The hindwing is dull white in males, but suffused with dark brown in females. The amount of dark suffusion is variable between specimens. A broad subterminal band and distinct postmedial line are present as is a discal dot. The dark suffusion of female hindwing gives a negative effect relative to the male. The male genitalia are typical of the smaragdina species group. The clasper is longer and thinner than that of marina, sometimes nearly reaching the costal margin of the valve. The shape of the clasper, however, is variable, and is not an invariable identifying character. The number of spine-like cornuti in the secondary group of the vesica is three or four in Paramiana new species 4 and usually four or five in marina. These spine-like cornuti and smaller in Paramiana new species 0003 than in marina, but again the variability within each species needs to be kept in mind. The female genitalia of Paramiana new species 4 are typical of the species group. The bursae of Paramiana new species 4 is much narrower and not nearly as ovate as in marina and the appendix bursae is more elongate and protuberant than in that species. Wing length: mean = 10.65 mm, standard deviation = 0.62 mm, n = 10.

Adults have been collected in August, September, and October.

Distribution: Paramiana new species 0003 has a wide distribution in the southwestern United States. The species has been collected commonly in western Texas, southern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona. It is also known from San Bernardino County in southeastern California. Females are slightly larger than males and the female hindwing is generally slightly darker than the male. Within populations the crispness of the maculation is slightly variable and a few individuals are slightly browner than others. None of this variation is particularly significant. I have not noticed any geographical variation.

Identification Quality: Excellent

Larva: Unknown

Foodplants: Unknown


Paramiana new species 4

Paramiana new species 4 has been mixed with marina in museum collections. The two are superficially very similar and are basically the same size. The maculation and general appearance of the forewing of Paramiana new species 4 is crisp, and the spots and lines are clearly delineated with white. The orbicular and reniform spots are usually totally outlined with white. The claviform spot is black, distinct, usually nearly joining a black spot on the inside of the postmedial line just below the reniform spot. In contrast the maculation and general appearance of the forewing of marina is diffuse, and the spots and lines are not clearly delineated with white. The upper and lower regions of the orbicular and reniform spots are diffuse and not outlined with white. The claviform spot usually is not distinct and not nearly joining a black blotch on the inner side of the postmedial line just below reniform spot. The differences between the male and female genitalia are discussed in the Diagnostics section above.

Similar Species

Paramiana marina